Born: April 21, 1729 Stettin, Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland) Died: November 6, 1796 Tsarskoye Selo (today Pushkin, Russia) German-born Russian empress
The latest Russian empress Catherine II, known as Catherine the great, reigned off 1762 to 1796. She prolonged this new Russian Empire, improved administration, and you can energetically pursued the policy out of Westernization (the whole process of modifying so you can western ideas and you will way of living). Lower than this lady laws Russia increased good and you can rivaled the great powers of European countries and you may China.
Catherine II came to be Sophia Augusta Frederica throughout the Italian language city regarding Stettin, Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland), into April 21, 1729. She was the fresh daughter out of Prince Christian August off Anhalt-Zerbst and Princess Johanna Age out-of Holstein-Gottorp. Catherine’s mothers, who have been hoping for a guy, failed to inform you a great deal of affection for the the daughter. As the a young child, Catherine try next to her governess Babette, just who Catherine referred to as, “the sort of governess every guy should have.” Catherine’s education highlighted the fresh sufferers noticed correct for starters of the woman class: religion (Lutheranism), records, French, German, and tunes.
When Catherine are fifteen, she visited Russia at the invitation off Empress Elizabeth to help you meet with the heir to the throne, the fresh new Grand Duke Peter (1728–1762), a keen young and you may disagreeable young people from sixteen. After Catherine changed into the fresh new Russian Orthodox trust, she therefore the more youthful Huge Duke was basically married when you look at the 1745.
Peter is actually in the future disloyal in order to Catherine, and you can immediately following a period she turned into disloyal in order to him. If Peter are the father away from Paul and you will Anna, the two pupils submitted since their offspring, stays a question.
But not, the lady loveless marriage didn’t overshadow the girl rational and you will political appeal. A sharp-witted and you may cultured girl, she realize commonly, especially in French. She preferred novels, plays, and you may verse but try including wanting the newest blog of big rates of one’s French Enlightenment (a period of cultural and you can idealistic conversion inside the France), such as for instance Diderot (1713–1784), Voltaire (1694–1778), and you may Montesquieu (1689–1755).
Increase in order to energy
Catherine is challenging in addition to intelligent and you can looked toward the time she’d laws Russia. Instead of their partner, the brand new Italian language-produced Catherine got care to demonstrate their dedication to Russia and you will brand new Russian Orthodox (a separate part of one’s Christian faith) trust. This respect, she think, manage earn the girl a rightful place on brand new throne and you may victory support of Russian people.
Whenever Empress Age passed away towards December twenty-five, 1761, Peter was stated Emperor Peter III, and you can Catherine turned empress. Not absolutely all months once going to the fresh new throne, Peter had composed many foes inside the authorities, brand new military, as well as the chapel. Soon there can be a storyline so you’re able to overthrow your, put their eight-year-old guy Paul into the throne, and you will identity Catherine given that regent (temporary leader) till the guy was old enough so you can rule by himself. However, men and women involved in the plot got underestimated Catherine’s ambition. They thought that by getting gone Peter, Catherine perform be much more from a background profile. She aimed for a stronger character getting herself, not. Towards the Summer twenty eight, 1762, with the help of the woman spouse Gregory Orlov, she rallied the newest soldiers out of St. Petersburg in order to the lady support and you may declared herself Catherine II, truly the only ruler out-of Russia. She got Peter arrested and you can called for your so you’re able to abdicate, or step down from, power. Shortly after his stop he had been murdered in the a beneficial brawl which have their captors.
Very early rule (1762–1764)
Catherine had ambitious agreements of one another domestic and you can international factors. However, for the first numerous years of her leadership this lady attention is actually led loveroulette PЕ™ihlГЎsit se towards the protecting their status. She understood that plenty of influential people believed her a good usurper, or someone who seized another’s electricity illegally. It viewed the lady guy, Paul, as the rightful leader. This lady response to this situation would be to take most of the possible opportunity to victory choose among nobility as well as the armed forces. Meanwhile she hit sharply during the individuals who looked for to displace the woman having Paul.